Remedial / Extra Classes – classes within a school setting- have aspects of traditional schooling, but focus on providing individual instructions, instead of giving instructions to the class as a whole. Teachers who teach remedial classes have specialised training that allows them to understand the individual needs of students with Autism, ADHD, other neurological conditions, and learning disorders. Due to their training, these teachers are often more patient, as they have learned about the behaviours which these children may display.

Remedial / Extra Classes also tend to be quite a bit smaller, but still focus on the social and communicative areas of peer-play and teamwork. These classes are more accommodating for the sensory needs of the children by often allowing frequent breaks for regulation and sensory input.

The four main steps of remedial teaching/classes are:

  • Prepping and collecting supporting materials that are specially for the abilities and capacity of the students.
  • Adapting the educational curriculum to the abilities of the children, especially through organising the resources in a way that is easier to understand for differently wired minds. This also includes making sure that the work is challenging (to prevent boredom, and thus non-compliance), but not so challenging that the child no longer wants to attempt the lesson.
  • Choosing appropriate teaching strategies, and teaching at a slower pace than in traditional classes. One of the strategies includes starting the lesson with an achievable goal, so that the child is motivated and willing to attempt a more demanding task.
  • Organising teaching materials, including materials that provide multi-sensory learning, interesting methods of learning, engaging colours, images, and themes.

In remedial classes, there is also a primary focus on rewarding trying, not just rewarding the desired outcome. This is the most important aspect of special needs education, as there is no incentive for the child to try if they do not know it is safe to make a mistake. Children with special needs often struggle can heavily impact their confidence and sense of self-worth, so it must be ensured that the environment is a calm, engaging, positive space for each individual.

Sometimes children can attend remedial / extra Classes independently, and other times, the child might require facilitation from a tutor, instructor, or therapist. School facilitation is the process in which the child is accompanied by a special-needs professional. The professional may be simply a supportive measure, or the needs of the child may be more intensive. Intensive support may look like running a toileting programme, showing the child how to complete activities and completing it with them, teaching communication methods, assisting social interaction, applying consistency in regard to complying with classroom rules and schedules, and explaining situations that the child might not understand or might be distressed by.

Remedial classes are an option for children with special needs, even if they are a higher-needs child. Should these needs require even more support than just a remedial class, school facilitations are an option to create the optimal environment of learning and trying!

Article by: A. Pascoe (2023)

Understanding types of learning disabilities including ADHD, Dyscalculia, Dyslexia, Dyspraxia, Executive Functioning, Non-Verbal Learning Disabilities, Oral/Written Language Disorder, and Specific Reading Comprehension Deficit


Learning disabilities can affect individuals of all ages, hindering their ability to acquire, process, and express information effectively. While these disabilities are diverse, they share the common characteristic of impacting an individual’s ability to learn in conventional ways. This article explores understanding types of learning disabilities, including ADHD, Dyscalculia, Dyslexia, Dyspraxia, Executive Functioning, Non-Verbal Learning Disabilities, Oral/Written Language Disorder, and Specific Reading Comprehension Deficit. It is important to note that, as per accepted medical consensus, learning disabilities have no cure, but early intervention can significantly mitigate their effects.

1. ADHD (Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder)

ADHD, or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, is one of the most recognized types of learning disabilities. It affects both children and adults and is characterized by symptoms like inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Individuals with ADHD may have difficulty focusing on tasks, following instructions, and organizing their thoughts.

Early intervention strategies for ADHD often involve behaviour therapy, medication, and support from educators and parents. These approaches can help individuals with ADHD develop coping strategies to manage their symptoms and improve their learning experiences.

2. Dyscalculia

Dyscalculia is a specific learning disability that affects an individual’s ability to understand and work with numbers and mathematical concepts. People with dyscalculia may struggle with basic arithmetic, calculations, and mathematical reasoning.

Interventions for dyscalculia typically involve specialized math instruction, multisensory learning techniques, and the use of assistive technology to aid in mathematical problem-solving. Early identification and support can make a significant difference in a person’s ability to overcome the challenges associated with dyscalculia.

3. Dyslexia

Dyslexia is perhaps one of the most well-known types of learning disabilities. It primarily affects reading and language-related skills. Individuals with dyslexia may have difficulty recognizing and decoding words, spelling, and reading comprehension.

Early intervention for dyslexia includes specialized reading programs, phonics-based instruction, and the use of audiobooks and text-to-speech software. These strategies help individuals with dyslexia develop effective reading skills and overcome the obstacles they face in educational settings.

4. Dyspraxia

Dyspraxia, also known as Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), is a learning disability that impacts fine and gross motor skills. Individuals with dyspraxia may struggle with tasks like tying shoelaces, buttoning shirts, or participating in sports.

Early intervention for dyspraxia involves occupational therapy and physical therapy to improve motor skills and coordination. These therapies help individuals develop the physical abilities needed to navigate daily activities and engage in physical education.

5. Executive Functioning

Executive functioning is not a specific learning disability but refers to a set of cognitive processes that control and regulate a person’s ability to plan, organize, manage time, and make decisions. Challenges in executive functioning can significantly affect academic performance and daily life.

Interventions for executive functioning difficulties include strategies such as using visual organizers, setting routines, and providing explicit instructions. These approaches help individuals develop better organizational and decision-making skills.

6. Non-Verbal Learning Disabilities

Non-verbal learning disabilities are characterized by difficulties in understanding non-verbal cues and social interactions. Individuals with non-verbal learning disabilities may have trouble interpreting body language, tone of voice, and facial expressions, making social interactions challenging.

Early intervention often includes social skills training, therapy to improve non-verbal communication, and support in understanding social contexts. These interventions can assist individuals in developing essential social skills for effective communication.

7. Oral/Written Language Disorder

Oral/Written Language Disorder, also known as expressive language disorder, affects an individual’s ability to convey their thoughts and ideas coherently through speech or writing. This learning disability can impact communication skills, making it difficult to express oneself effectively.

Interventions for oral/written language disorder typically involve speech therapy, language therapy, and specialized instruction in written expression. Early identification and intervention can help individuals improve their ability to communicate verbally and in writing.

8. Specific Reading Comprehension Deficit

Specific Reading Comprehension Deficit is a type of learning disability that specifically affects an individual’s ability to understand and interpret written text. Unlike dyslexia, which primarily involves difficulties in word recognition, this disability focuses on comprehension issues.

Early intervention strategies for specific reading comprehension deficit focus on improving reading comprehension through specialized reading programs, comprehension strategies, and individualized support. These interventions target the specific challenges individuals face in understanding written material.


In summary, learning disabilities encompass a range of challenges that impact an individual’s ability to acquire and process information effectively. The types of learning disabilities list, including ADHD, Dyscalculia, Dyslexia, Dyspraxia, Executive Functioning, Non-Verbal Learning Disabilities, Oral/Written Language Disorder, and Specific Reading Comprehension Deficit, demonstrate the diverse nature of these conditions. While there is no cure for learning disabilities, early intervention and support are essential for mitigating their effects. People with learning disabilities can develop coping strategies and learn to thrive in academic and life settings when provided with the right guidance and resources.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, often abbreviated as ADHD CBT, is a valuable therapeutic approach for individuals grappling with ADHD. This evidence-based treatment empowers those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to develop essential skills and strategies for managing their condition effectively. While there is no known cure for ADHD, cognitive behavioural therapy has emerged as a pivotal tool in mitigating its impact on daily life.

Understanding ADHD and Its Challenges

ADHD is a  disorder characterised by persistent patterns of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Individuals with ADHD often face challenges in various aspects of their lives, including academics, work, relationships, and self-esteem. While ADHD cannot be completely cured, it can be managed effectively through a combination of strategies and therapies.

The Role of ADHD Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

ADHD CBT is a specialized form of therapy that focuses on helping individuals with ADHD develop cognitive and behavioural skills to manage their symptoms and improve their overall quality of life. It addresses the root causes of ADHD-related difficulties, such as poor impulse control, time management issues, and low frustration tolerance.

In ADHD CBT, individuals work with trained therapists to identify their specific challenges and develop tailored strategies to address them. These strategies often include:

  • Time Management: People with ADHD frequently struggle with time perception and organization. CBT helps them learn how to set realistic goals, plan tasks, and adhere to schedules.
  • Impulse Control: Impulsivity can lead to impulsive decisions and actions. Through CBT, individuals with ADHD learn techniques to pause and think before acting.
  • Stress Management: ADHD often accompanies heightened stress levels. Cognitive behavioural therapy equips individuals with tools to manage stress effectively, reducing its negative impact.
  • Attention Enhancement: Techniques such as mindfulness and attention training help improve focus and concentration.
  • Behavioural Modification: CBT assists individuals in recognizing problematic behaviours and replacing them with more adaptive ones.
  • Emotion Regulation: Many individuals with ADHD struggle with emotional dysregulation. CBT helps them understand and manage their emotions more effectively.

The Importance of ADHD Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Early Intervention

As the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) suggests, there is no cure for learning disabilities such as ADHD. However, early intervention is key to minimizing the challenges associated with ADHD. The same principle applies to ADHD CBT – the earlier it is introduced, the more effective it can be in equipping individuals with the necessary skills to manage their condition.

Children and adults alike can benefit from ADHD CBT, and the strategies learned in therapy can be applied throughout their lives. By addressing the cognitive and behavioural aspects of ADHD, individuals can unlock their potential and lead fulfilling lives, both academically and personally.

ADHD Cognitive Behavioural Therapy: Conclusions

In the realm of ADHD treatment, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Cognitive Behavioural Therapy provides hope. While there is no cure for ADHD, this evidence-based approach empowers individuals to develop vital skills for managing their condition effectively. By addressing the cognitive and behavioural challenges associated with ADHD, CBT equips individuals with tools to navigate life’s complexities with greater ease.

Early intervention is pivotal, as it increases the likelihood of success in school and later in life. Through a collaborative effort between individuals with ADHD, their families, and skilled therapists, ADHD CBT can unlock the potential within, allowing individuals to flourish despite the challenges of their condition.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental condition that affects both children and adults. While there is no known cure for ADHD, there are various effective treatment options available to manage its symptoms and improve daily functioning. One such approach gaining recognition is behavioural therapy for ADHD.

Behavioural therapy is a structured, evidence-based treatment that aims to enhance self-control, problem-solving skills, and adaptive behaviours in individuals with ADHD. By addressing specific behavioural challenges associated with the condition, this therapy offers valuable tools for managing the symptoms and improving overall quality of life.

Understanding Behavioural Therapy for ADHD

Behavioural therapy is rooted in the idea that individuals with the condition often struggle with impulse control, organization, and focus. By providing them with strategies and skills to better manage these challenges, this therapy seeks to reduce the impact of ADHD on daily functioning.

One of the primary goals of behavioural therapy is to teach individuals how to recognize and modify their behaviours in response to specific situations. This is often achieved through techniques such as:

  • Behavioural Modification: Behavioural therapy helps individuals identify problem behaviours and replace them with more desirable ones. This can involve setting clear goals and rewards for achieving them, creating routines, and using positive reinforcement.
  • Time Management: ADHD often leads to difficulties in managing time effectively. Behavioural therapy can teach individuals how to set priorities, break tasks into manageable steps, and use time management tools to stay organized.
  • Coping Strategies: Individuals with ADHD may experience frustration, anxiety, or low self-esteem due to their condition. Behavioural therapy equips them with coping strategies to manage emotional challenges and build resilience.
  • Parent Training: For children with ADHD, involving parents in the therapy process is crucial. Parent training helps caregivers better understand their child’s condition and learn how to implement strategies at home and in daily routines.

Benefits of Behavioural Therapy for ADHD

Behavioural therapy offers a range of benefits for both children and adults diagnosed with the condition. Some of these include:

  • Improved Self-Regulation: Individuals learn to regulate their impulses and reactions, leading to better self-control.
  • Enhanced Problem-Solving: Behavioural therapy equips individuals with effective problem-solving skills, making it easier to navigate daily challenges.
  • Better Academic and Occupational Performance: Children with ADHD can see improvements in school performance, while adults may experience enhanced productivity in the workplace.
  • Strengthened Relationships: Effective communication and coping strategies taught in therapy can improve relationships with family, friends, and colleagues.
  • Reduced Medication Dependency: While medication can be a helpful component of ADHD treatment, behavioural therapy can reduce the need for high doses or long-term medication use.


In the realm of ADHD treatment, behavioural therapy stands out as an essential tool for managing symptoms and improving the lives of individuals affected by the condition. While it is important to note that there is no cure for ADHD, early intervention through behavioural therapy can significantly lessen the impact of the disorder.

By equipping individuals with ADHD with strategies to enhance self-control, time management, and emotional well-being, behavioural therapy empowers them to lead more fulfilling lives. It also plays a critical role in educating parents and caregivers, fostering understanding and support for those living with ADHD. Through early intervention and the incorporation of behavioural therapy, individuals with ADHD can develop valuable skills that increase their chances of success in school and later in life.

Developmental Disorder Treatment: A Lifeline for Progress for Children with ADHD

Developmental disorders affect millions of individuals worldwide, often presenting unique challenges that impact their daily lives. While there is no known cure for developmental disorders, the importance of early intervention in developmental disorder treatment cannot be overstated. Early diagnosis and targeted interventions can significantly improve an individual’s ability to cope with their disabilities and lead a more fulfilling life.


What Are Developmental Disorders?

Developmental disorders encompass a broad spectrum of conditions that typically manifest during childhood and affect various aspects of an individual’s development. These disorders may impact cognitive, social, emotional, or physical abilities. Some well-known developmental disorders include autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and specific learning disabilities like dyslexia.


The Role of Early Intervention in Developmental Disorder Treatment

Early intervention is a critical component of developmental disorder treatment. It involves identifying and addressing developmental challenges as soon as they become evident, often during the preschool years. The primary goal of early intervention is to mitigate the impact of these disorders and equip individuals with the tools they need to thrive.

Early intervention programs are tailored to the specific needs of each child, considering their unique strengths and weaknesses. These programs may include speech therapy, occupational therapy, behaviour therapy or applied behaviour analysis (ABA), and educational support. The sooner these interventions begin, the better the chances of success in school and later in life.


Empowering Individuals with Learning Disabilities

While there is no cure for developmental disorders, individuals can develop effective strategies to manage their disabilities and improve their quality of life. Developmental disorder treatment often involves teaching individuals how to adapt to their challenges and build on their strengths. This empowerment can lead to greater independence and self-confidence.

In the case of learning disabilities, such as dyslexia or dyscalculia, specialized educational strategies can make a significant difference. These strategies may involve personalized reading programs, assistive technology, and individualized lesson plans. With the right support, individuals with learning disabilities can make substantial progress in their academic pursuits.


The Importance of a Supportive Network 

Families, educators, and healthcare professionals play a crucial role in the success of developmental disorder treatment. Collaborative efforts among these participants can create a supportive network that fosters the development of essential skills and coping mechanisms.

Parents and caregivers can advocate for their children’s needs and seek out resources and services that cater to their specific developmental challenges. Teachers can implement individualized education plans (IEPs) to address students’ unique needs, and healthcare professionals can provide guidance and therapies tailored to each individual.


In Conclusion

Developmental disorder treatment, especially for conditions like autism, ADHD, and learning disabilities, revolves around early intervention and support. The options for individuals with developmental challenges can be significantly improved through timely interventions and a nurturing environment. With the right tools, strategies, and support, individuals with developmental disorders can build brighter futures and achieve their full potential. Remember, it’s not about curing these disorders but helping individuals thrive in spite of them.

An Effective ADHD Treatment Plan

ADHD, or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, is a neuro-developmental condition that affects millions of individuals worldwide. While there is no cure for ADHD, various treatments and therapies can significantly improve one’s quality of life. Among these, ACT (Acceptance and Commitment Therapy), DBT (Dialectical Behaviour Therapy), and CBT (Cognitive Behavioural Therapy) stand out as effective approaches. In this article, we will explore ACT, DBT, CBT therapies and discuss how they can be integrated into an ADHD treatment plan.


Understanding ADHD to construct an effective ADHD Treatment Plan

Before diving into the therapies, it’s essential to grasp the nature of ADHD. It is a complex disorder characterized by symptoms like impulsivity, inattention, and hyperactivity. While ADHD cannot be cured, early intervention and appropriate therapies can help individuals learn to manage their symptoms effectively, allowing them to lead fulfilling lives.


ACT – Embracing Acceptance and Commitment Therapy

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is a contemporary approach to psychotherapy that focuses on acceptance, mindfulness, and commitment to personal values. ACT emphasizes the importance of living in the present moment, acknowledging negative thoughts and feelings, and choosing actions that align with one’s values and goals.

For individuals with ADHD, ACT can be particularly beneficial. Many people with ADHD struggle with self-criticism and feelings of inadequacy due to their difficulties with focus and organization. ACT encourages self-compassion and self-acceptance, helping individuals come to terms with their condition and reducing the emotional burden associated with it.

Incorporating ACT into an ADHD treatment plan involves working with a trained therapist who can guide you through mindfulness exercises, value clarification, and cognitive restructuring. These practices can help you better manage ADHD-related challenges and improve your overall well-being.


DBT – Navigating Life with Dialectical Behaviour Therapy

Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) is another evidence-based treatment that can be integrated into an ADHD treatment plan. Initially developed to treat borderline personality disorder, DBT has since been adapted to address a range of emotional and behavioural issues.

DBT teaches individuals skills in four key areas: mindfulness, emotional regulation, interpersonal effectiveness, and distress tolerance. While it may not directly address the core symptoms of ADHD, it equips individuals with practical tools to manage the emotional and interpersonal challenges that often accompany the condition.

People with ADHD can benefit from DBT by learning how to regulate their emotions effectively, improve impulse control, and enhance their ability to maintain healthy relationships. These skills can be invaluable in managing ADHD symptoms in everyday life.


CBT – Restructuring Thoughts and Behaviors

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is a widely recognized therapeutic approach that helps individuals identify and change negative thought patterns and behaviours. CBT has been successfully applied to various mental health conditions, including ADHD.

In the context of ADHD, CBT can help individuals develop coping strategies to address specific challenges. For example, people with ADHD often struggle with time management, organization, and procrastination. CBT can teach practical skills to improve executive functioning, such as setting goals, creating schedules, and breaking tasks into manageable steps.

CBT also addresses the emotional aspects of ADHD, helping individuals manage frustration, anxiety, and low self-esteem. By challenging negative thought patterns and replacing them with more constructive ones, individuals can improve their overall mental well-being.


Integrating Therapies into Your ADHD Treatment Plan

There are several potential benefits of ACT, DBT, and CBT in managing ADHD. Here is how can you integrate these therapies into your treatment plan effectively:


  • Consult with a Mental Health Professional: The first step is to consult with a mental health professional who specializes in ADHD and is knowledgeable about these therapeutic approaches. They can assess your specific needs and recommend the most suitable therapy or combination of therapies for you.
  • Create a Comprehensive Treatment Plan: Work with your therapist to create a comprehensive treatment plan that addresses your ADHD symptoms and any co-occurring mental health challenges. Your plan may include a combination of therapy modalities, medication, and lifestyle adjustments.
  • Set Clear Goals: Establish clear and realistic goals for your therapy. Whether it’s improving focus, managing impulsivity, or enhancing emotional regulation, having specific objectives will guide your treatment.
  • Consistency and Commitment: Success in therapy, regardless of the approach, often depends on your commitment and consistency. Attend sessions regularly, practice the skills you learn, and apply them in your daily life.
  • Mindfulness and Self-Care: Incorporate mindfulness practices and self-care routines into your daily life to support the therapeutic process. These practices can help you stay grounded, reduce stress, and maintain emotional balance.
  • Regular Assessment: Regularly assess your progress with your therapist to ensure that the chosen therapies are effectively addressing your ADHD symptoms and any associated challenges. Adjustments to the treatment plan may be necessary as you progress.



In the journey to manage ADHD, integrating therapies like ACT, DBT, and CBT can be highly beneficial. While these therapies may not offer a cure for ADHD, they provide valuable tools and strategies to help individuals effectively manage their symptoms and improve their overall quality of life.

Remember that each person’s ADHD experience is unique, and what works best for one individual may not be the same for another. Consult with a qualified mental health professional to determine the most appropriate therapies for your specific needs. With the right guidance and commitment, you can develop the skills and strategies necessary to thrive with ADHD, embracing a fulfilling and productive life.

Aandag afleibaarheid sindroom ook bekend as ADHD, is die term wat gebruik word om ‘n hiperaktiewe, impulsiewe en aandag afleibare kind mee te diagnoseer.

Aandag afleibarheid sindroom is opgedeel in 3 soorte naamlik:

  • Aandag afleibaar wat beteken dat die kind sukkel om hul aandag gevestig te hou in klas of nie kan betyds klaar werk nie en selfs nie lus het om vir lank te wil stil sit in klas nie.
  • Hiperaktiwiteit en impulsiwiteit wat handel oor uitspattige gedrag wat voorkom sonder dat die kind dink voor hul doen of nie hulle beurt kan afwag nie.
  • Die derde is ‘n kombinasie van albei aandag afleibaarheid en impulsiwiteit.

Aandag afleibaarheid sindroom verskil van kind tot kind, dit beteken dat soms kan ‘n kind net sukkel om te konsentreer en aktief verkeer en soms is net een simptoom sigbaar. Simptome van aandag afleibaarheid sindroom begin vanaf ‘n jong ouderdom, in meeste gevalle is dit eers duidelik sigbaar as die kind moet regmaak om skool toe te gaan en selfs vir lang tydperke moet kan stil sit soos in ‘n klas.‘n Volledige mediese ondersoek sal bepaal in watter kategorie van aandag afleibaarheid sindroom die kind is. Die simptome van aandag afleibaarheid sindroom moet voor die ouderdom van 12 sigbaar wees sodat dit kan diagnoseer word. Aandag afleibaarheid sindroom simptome word gesien in terme van die kind se gedragspatrone. Dit beteken nie dat mens moet wag totdat die kind 12 jaar oud is nie, want vroëe intervensie is uiters belangrik. Aandag afleibaarheid sindroom moet in meer as een direkte omgewing van die kind in meng sodat die kind klassifiseer as aandag afleibaar. Hierdie omgewings strek vanaf die kind se omgewing by die huis tot in die klas, Aandag afleibaarheid hinder die kind se sosiale, akademiese en allerdaagse lewe. Hierdie hindernisse vertraag die ontwikkeling van die kind in hulle taal, motoriese asook sosiale vaardighede.

Aandag afleibaarheid sindroom maak dit moeilik vir kinders om maats te maak in skool omgewings, om probleme op te los, luister vermoë en sukkel om die werk te voltooi as dit die kind verveel om net ‘n paar te noem.

Aandag afleibaarheid sindroom kan behandel word deur voorgeskrewe medikasie vanaf ‘n spesialis en gedrags terapie (dit is ‘n behandeling wat klem lê op gedrag en hoe om dit te bestuur). Medikasie is stimulante wat die die brein stimuleer asook die senuweestesel, deur middel van medikasie is die kind se vermoë om te kan konsentreer in klas verhoog en dit verbeter die buie wat die kind ervaar asook hulle impulsiewe gedrag. Medikasie is wel die eerste keuse van behandeling vir aandag afleibaarheid sindroom, maar dit het newe-effekte soos; ‘n onderdrukte eetlus, slaaploosheid, by sommige kinders kan daar agressie voorkom en angstigheid.
‘n Ander opsie is spesiale onderrig skole wat kleiner klasse en meer individuele aandag beteken. Daar is ‘n stryd wat voorlê as die kind moet inskryf by ‘n skool, maar daar is geen rede om moed op te gee nie; daar is skole wat voorsiening maak vir spesiale behoeftes vir leerders, veral vir aandag afleibaarheid sindroom.

‘n Aandag afleibaarheid sindroom diagnose voel dalk soos ‘n moeilike stryd om te veg, maar in hierdie nuwe dekade is daar meer as een manier om terug te veg.


Mash, E.J. & Wolfe, D.A. (2019). Abnormal Child Psychology (7th edition). USA: Cengage. [ISBN- 9781337624268]